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    Personal Tax?

    A tax levied against people or organizations (taxpayers) in relation to their income or profits is known as PERSONAL TAX (commonly called income tax). Tax rates multiplied by taxable income are typically used to calculate income taxes. Tax rates might change depending on the taxpayer’s attributes and source of income.

    As taxable income rises, the personal tax rate can also (referred to as graduated or progressive tax rates). Corporate tax, which is often assessed at a fixed rate, is the name given to the tax charged on businesses. Individual income is frequently taxed at progressive rates, meaning that the tax rate is increased for each successive unit of income.

    The majority of tax laws exempt local charitable groups. Investment income may be subject to a different tax rate than other types of income, which rate is typically lower. Credits of all kinds that lower tax may be granted. A tax on an alternative base or measure of income or an income tax, whichever is higher, may be imposed by some countries.

    Taxable income for taxpayers who reside in the jurisdiction is often calculated as total income less certain deductions and expenses that go towards earning income. In general, income only includes net gains from the sale of property, including items held for sale. Distributions of corporate earnings are typically included in the income of a corporation’s shareholders.

    Deductions typically cover all expenditures incurred for operating a business or generating money, including a provision for the cost of corporate assets to be recovered. Many countries permit individuals to deduct hypothetical expenses, as well as maybe some personal expenses. The majority of states either do not tax income earned outside their borders or give taxpayers a credit for taxes paid to other states on such income. With rare exceptions, nonresidents are only subject to taxation on a limited range of income derived from sources within the jurisdictions.


    A money economy, reasonably precise accounts, a shared understanding of receipts, expenses, and profits, and a stable society with reliable records are all prerequisites for the modern innovation of income taxation.

    These prerequisites were absent during the majority of civilization’s existence, and taxes were set in accordance with other considerations. Wealth, social standing, and ownership of the means of production (mostly land and slaves) were all taxed frequently. While tithe and the offering of first fruits, which date back to ancient times, can be seen as forerunners of the income tax, they lacked specificity and most definitely weren’t founded on the idea of net increase.

    Britain’s first income tax

    In Britain, income tax was introduced by William Pitt the Younger in 1799. The introduction of tax allowed Britain to fund the struggle against the French Revolutionary War and subsequent wars conducted by Napoleonic France. The initial charge from Pitt’s income tax began at 2 old pence to the pound on incomes over £60.

    The tax was then increased to a maximum of 2 shillings in the pound (10%) for incomes over £200. Pitt hoped this would raise up to £10 million in tax a year – unfortunately, estimates showed that he only received around £6 million.

    Sir Robert Peel reinstated income tax in 1842. Peel had initially opposed the tax in 1841, but as the budget deficit grew, he was forced to take a position and looked to Pitt’s income tax model. Ten years later, William Gladstone maintained income tax and expanded it to finance the expense of the Crimean War in spite of opposition. Income tax was reluctantly accepted by the British public as a fixture of Victorian society by the 1860s.

    Income tax was eliminated at the start of the 19th century and then reinstated in the case of new wars. Tax opponents made sure that it would only be put in place during times of war.

    Toward the close of the 19th century, Disraeli and Gladstone fought over differences and taxation concerns, with Disraeli ultimately succeeding Gladstone as Prime Minister. It was agreed that the income tax would be abolished whoever was in charge. Of its £77 million in earnings at this point, income tax brought in £6 million for the government. During a time of unprecedented prosperity for Britain, customs and exports commerce made up for £47 million.

    The tax code in Britain

    Tax administration and collection in the UK is the responsibility of HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC). In 2020–21, the UK’s overall tax revenues were about £584.5 billion, a 7.7% decline from the prior tax year.

    Income taxes, property taxes, capital gains taxes, UK inheritance taxes, and Value Added Tax are among the basic UK taxes (VAT). Many of them are progressive taxes, which means that people who earn more pay more of them.

    All of the countries that make up the United Kingdom use the British fiscal system, including England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland (although there are some special differences because of Scotland’s own legal system), and several of the smaller islands off the British coast. Additionally, it includes oil drilling sites in British territorial waters, but noticeably leaves out the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.

    One unique feature of UK tax is that, with the exception of a tiny deduction for income taxes, spouses are treated as different legal persons and are subject to individual taxation.

    Regular principles of Personal tax

    Payments to the central government (HM Revenue & Customs), devolved governments, and local governments are all possible recipients of taxes in the United Kingdom. Income tax, National Insurance payments, value-added tax, corporate tax, and fuel charge are the main sources of funding for the central government. In England, business rates, council tax, grants from the federal government, and increasingly taxes and charges like those for on-street parking, are the main sources of funding for local governments. Total government revenue for the fiscal year 2014–15 was projected to be £648 billion, or 37.7% of GDP, with net taxes and National Insurance payments totaling £606 billion.

    Council fees

    The system of local taxes known as council tax is used in England, Scotland, and Wales to partially finance the services that local governments in each of these nations offer. It was implemented in 1993 as a replacement for the controversial Community Charge (often known as a “poll tax”), which had temporarily replaced the Rates system. The tax is based on residential property, and single individuals receive savings. The typical annual charge on a property in England as of 2008 was £1,146. In England, council tax totaled £22.4 billion in 2006–2007, with an extra £10.8 billion in sales, fees, and charges.

    UK federal income taxes

    In the UK, taxes may be paid to at least three separate governmental entities, including the national government (HMRC), devolved governments (particularly Scotland), and local governments through council taxes.

    The key taxes that HMRC manages are as follows:

    • Corporation tax Income tax
    • tax on capital gains
    • tax on inheritance
    • VAT on insurance premiums
    • Revenue taxes on stamps, land, and petroleum
    • taxing the environment
    • Landfill tax, aggregates tax, and climate change
    • Valuation Added Tax (VAT)
    • Excise and customs duties

    Who in the UK must pay taxes?

    With the exception of VAT, the most of the numerous taxes to which a resident of the UK is subject are linked in some manner to income taxes. Adding up your personal income and benefits, deducting your personal allowance, and paying the appropriate rate on the difference is the basic method for this.

    All people are allowed a personal allowance of £12,570 for the 2022–2023 tax year, which makes income below that amount tax-exempt. UK income tax rates vary based on your income in phases. Other tax rates, such as capital gains tax rates, are also determined by these steps, or bands.

    Taxpayers number about 32 million in the UK.No matter where a person resides, UK tax rates are the same for everyone. What income sources must be reported on your return, however, is determined by your residency status. A person who is a UK resident for tax purposes is subject to tax on their international income with deductions to avoid double taxation from some nations. On the other hand, non-UK citizens only pay taxes on income earned in the UK.

    In the UK, who is excused from paying taxes?

    You can apply for tax exemption in the UK in a few different ways. For instance, you are not a UK resident if you spent 16 or fewer days in the UK during the current tax year but were a tax resident for at least one of the previous three tax years. The same holds true if you spent less than 46 days in the UK and weren’t a tax resident for any of the previous three years. If you spent all of your time working abroad, the window of permissible time grows to 91 days.

    Foreigners’ tax system in the UK

    In general, foreign residents are required to pay British tax at the same rates as citizens. All compensation and perks, including school tuition and cost-of-living stipends, are subject to taxation. However, in certain circumstances, both employee and employer contributions to a foreign pension plan may be tax-deductible.

    One of the largest networks in the world, the UK has double taxation arrangements with more than 130 nations. These nations include Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Australia, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, and the United States. If you receive income from another nation that is taxed at the source, you can typically file a tax relief claim to recover some or all of this tax. But how you submit your claim will vary depending on a variety of variables, such as whether you are a UK tax resident or not.

    Only 90% of international pension or annuity payments made to UK citizens, including unlawful payments such early payments and some lump amounts, are subject to UK tax. This means that regardless of the scheme’s location—in the UK or abroad—pension payments made to UK citizens are taxed the same way. As a general rule, find out how you can be taxed by speaking with your pension provider.

    Taxes for transient business travelers (STBV)

    Anyone who works in the UK for less than 183 days within the applicable tax year and for less than a total of one year will be considered a short-term business visitor for tax purposes. Even if the employer is abroad, such individuals must pay UK tax on their compensation if the work was done there. Any taxes owed in these situations may be offset by double taxation agreements.

    UK taxes for foreign nationals

    Foreign nationals who reside in the UK but have their primary residence (or “domicile”) elsewhere may occasionally be exempt from UK income tax. Your domicile is often the nation that, at the time of your birth, your father regarded to be his permanent home. However, if you currently reside in another nation (like the UK) and have no plans to go back, this may alter. These non-doms (non-doms) are normally not permitted to remain in the UK indefinitely.

    If a non-foreign dom’s income or gains are less than £2,000 during the tax year and they are not brought into the UK, they are not subject to UK tax. A self-assessment tax return must be used to report any amounts over £2,000 to HMRC. Students who travel to the UK to study are subject to special regulations.

    British income tax rates

    Your particular circumstances will determine how much UK tax you owe. The UK imposes income tax at progressive rates, with greater rates of taxation being applied to income bands with higher income levels. Tax is applied to the sum of all earned income and investment income after deductions and allowances.

    The majority of people are entitled to a personal allowance that is tax-free. It will cost £12,570 in 2022–2023. A personal tax deduction is not available for incomes exceeding £125,000.

    UK Tax Rates

    Taxable Income

    Income Tax Rate

    Personal Allowance



    Basic Rate



    Higher Rate



    Additional Rate



    How can we help you?

    Our experienced ACCA and CPA team are rated the best amongst their field and are committed to provide a high level of accounting and taxation services. Tax returns can be completed for:

    • Individuals and sole traders
    • Partnerships
    • Limited Companies
    • Advice on your tax liabilities
    • Negotiating with the Collector if necessary
    • Identifying suitable tax planning opportunities
    • Completing all the necessary tax computations
    • Dealing with all correspondence from HMRC
    Personal tax

    Why outsource?

    The self-assessment regime is full of penalties and HMRC enquiry powers are extensive. It’s important that:

    • Returns are correctly completed.
    • They are filed on time and All backup records are retained.