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    Book Keeping

    In business and other organizations, book keeping is the process of documenting financial transactions. It entails creating source records for all corporate processes, transactions, and other occurrences. Purchases, sales, receipts, and payments made by an individual or a business/corporation are all considered transactions. 

    The single-entry and double-entry book keeping systems are two of the most used techniques of bookkeeping. Even though these could be considered “genuine” bookkeeping, any procedure for documenting financial transactions qualifies as bookkeeping.

    What Does A Book Keeper Do? 

    The term “bookkeeper” often refers to the employee of an organization who is responsible for doing book keeping duties (or book-keeper).  

    They often write the daybooks (which include records of sales, purchases, receipts, and payments) and enter all financial transactions, whether cash or credit, into the appropriate daybook (such as the general ledger and the petty cash book, suppliers ledger, customers ledger, etc.). 

     An accountant can then produce financial reports using the data that the bookkeeper has recorded. A trial balance is reached by the bookkeeper, after which an accountant may create financial reports for the company such the income statement and balance sheet. 

    What Are Basic Book Keeping Skills?

    Here are some abilities to master in order to be successful as a bookkeeper:

    1. Invoicing.

    The act of itemizing a transaction and outlining each charge on a bill is known as invoicing. When dealing with businesses, book keepers handle invoices. Understanding how to read invoice papers helps them discover details of a transaction between buyers and sellers. Invoice preparation, reading, and interpretation skills enable bookkeepers to track incoming revenue and comprehend outbound payments.

    2. Critically Analysing.

    When handling business records, book keepers employ critical thinking to solve issues and overcome obstacles. They can evaluate the significance of their data and spot trends, patterns, or inconsistencies in commercial transactions by applying critical thinking. Using the information provided, they can then come up with creative solutions. When balancing chequebooks or reconciling bank accounts or moving documents and determining the cause of errors, bookkeepers use critical thinking.

    3. Organization

    Book keepers prioritize and plan their work with the aid of their organizational abilities. They frequently set up data for both quick and long-term tasks. Strong organizational abilities also enable them to keep financial documents in accordance with a certain method so that they may readily access them.

    4. Accounts Payable

    A group of data that bookkeepers look at is called accounts payable, and it includes a summary of a company’s current obligations and short-term debts. It is frequently necessary to prioritize information and keep track of various payment methods while managing accounts payable. When analyzing a company’s finances, bookkeepers might be helped by knowing how much a corporation owes.

    5. Numeracy.

    Bookkeepers might feel more at ease handling numbers if they have a basic understanding of arithmetic and numeracy. This is useful for sharing reports and conveying numerical data with accountants or other company stakeholders. Book keeping daily activities frequently include looking at numbers and may entail doing basic addition and multiplication calculations.

    6. Spreadsheets

    Spreadsheets are frequently used by book keepers to record financial data. Professionals in book keeping may find it useful to have some knowledge of spreadsheet programmes. With the use of spreadsheet tools, bookkeepers may designate distinct sections for various data kinds and separate files for specific elements, such as employee wages and accounts payable. Spreadsheets may also be programmed with equations to calculate data automatically and assist you in deciphering specifics of business operations.

    7. Transparency.

    It’s crucial for book keepers to be honest and open because they frequently handle sensitive data. Companies that collaborate with them follow all rules put forth to secure their data. Bookkeepers must be able to communicate information effectively and to uphold all privacy obligations since many individuals approach them with inquiries regarding financial data.

    8. Data Entry

    The ability to swiftly and properly enter figures into forms and book  keeping software is known as data entry. Bookkeepers who are proficient in data entry can quickly and accurately add data to corporate records. Having proficiency with computers and the capacity to learn new technologies are two examples of this. Those that type quickly can enter data more effectively.
    Primary Purpose/Methods of Book Keeping
    The main goal of accounting is to keep track of how transactions affect finances. The delay between recording a financial transaction and its posting in the appropriate account in a manual accounting system is a significant distinction between them.

    Single Entry System.

    A one-sided accounting entry is used in single-entry book keeping, sometimes referred to as single-entry accounting, to preserve financial data. 

    The cash book, which resembles a checking account register (in the UK: cheque account, current account) except that all entries are distributed across several categories of revenue and spending accounts, is the main bookkeeping record in single-entry bookkeeping.

    Petty cash, accounts payable and receivable, and other pertinent transactions like inventory and travel costs are all kept in separate account records. With today’s self-help accounting software, single-entry bookkeeping may be completed quickly and without the mistakes that come with manual computations.

     Most sole owners cannot afford to make the commitment that double entry accounting frequently needs or are just uninterested in. One of these sorts of enterprises, it is typical for them to just keep track of the money they received in cash and for paying bills.

    However, there is some degree of record keeping as these companies monitor their revenue and expenses. As a result, “single-entry accounting” or “Accounting for incomplete records” refers to the practice of keeping incomplete records of business-related activities that is beyond the standards of double-entry book keeping.

    The majority of organizations use double-entry accounting to keep track of their transactions. The “basic fundamentals” are recorded in single-entry books, which are used by many tiny enterprises.

    Only cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and taxes paid records may be kept in specific circumstances.
    A professional accountant can often consolidate this sort of accounting with extra information into an income statement and statement of affairs.

    Double Entry Book keeping

    A two-sided accounting entry is used in double-entry book keeping, commonly referred to as double-entry accounting, to store financial data. Every entry into one account necessitates an equivalent and opposing entry into another account. 

    The debit and credit sides of the doubleentry system are equal and matching. In double-entry accounting, a transaction always involves at least two accounts, at least one debit and one credit, and an equal number of total debits and total credits. The goal of double-entry book keeping is to make it possible to identify accounting fraud and mistakes.

    Examples Of Single And Double Entry System
    The Journal

    A journal is a written record or digital file maintained as a book, spreadsheet, or data in accounting software for accounting reasons. A bookkeeper records the financial transaction as a journal entry whenever a business transaction occurs. The journal entry will also specify which business accounts the spending or income affects.
    In order to maintain objective records, journaling is crucial. It also enables quick inspections and records transfers later on in the accounting process. Along with the general ledger, journals are frequently inspected as part of a trade or audit procedure.

    The Ledger

    An account or record used to keep track of bookkeeping transactions for balance-sheet and income-statement transactions is known as an accounting ledger.

    Accounts like as cash, accounts receivable, investments, inventory, accounts payable, accrued costs, and client deposits can all be included in accounting ledger journal entries. For all kinds of balance sheet and income statement transactions, accounting ledgers are kept.

    The backbone of every company financial system is the accounting ledger, often known as the general ledger (GL), which offers a centralised repository to gather all account data compiled from sub ledgers or modules. 

    The income statement, cash flow statement, and balance sheet are the three main financial statements that are produced using the accounting ledger. 

    There are different types of ledgers used in book keeping:

    Sales ledger which primarily handles the receivables account. The financial transactions that clients make with the company are documented in this ledger. 

    Purchase ledger which is closely related to the accounts payable account, serves as a record of all purchases made by a business.

    Abbreviation Used In Book Keeping

    • A/c – Account  
    • Acc – Account 
    • A/R – Accounts receivable 
    • A/P – Accounts payable 
    • B/S – Balance sheet 
    • c/d – Carried down 
    • b/d – Brought down 
    • c/f – Carried forward 
    • b/f – Brought forward 
    • Dr – Debit side of a ledger. “Dr” stands for “Debit register” 
    • Cr – Credit side of a ledger. “Cr” stands for “Credit register” 
    • G/L – General ledger; (or N/L – nominal ledger)  
    • PL – Profit and loss; (or I/S – income statement) 
    • P/L – Purchase Ledger (Accounts payable) 
    • P/R – Payroll 
    • PP&E – Property, plant and equipment  
    • S/L – Sales Ledger (Accounts receivable) 
    • TB – Trial Balance 
    • GST – Goods and services tax 
    • SGST- State goods & service tax 
    • CGST- Central goods & service tax
    • IGST- integrated goods & service tax 
    • VAT – Value added tax 
    • CST – Central sale tax 
    • TDS – Tax deducted at source 
    • AMT – Alternate minimum tax 
    • EBITDA – Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortisation 
    • EBDTA – Earnings before depreciation, taxes and amortisation 
    • EBT – Earnings before tax 
    • EAT – Earnings after tax 
    • PAT – Profit after tax 
    • PBT – Profit before tax 
    • Depr – Depreciation 
    • Dep – Depreciation 
    • CPO – Cash paid out 
    • CP – Cash Payment 
    • w.e.f. – with effect from 
    • @ – at the rate of 
    • L/F – ledger folio 
    • J/F – Journal Folio 
    • V/N – voucher number

    Chart Of Accounts

    A chart of accounts (COA) is a list of financial accounts created for an organization, often by an accountant, and made available to the bookkeeper for use in entering transactions in the general ledger.

    Accounts can be added as needed to the chart of accounts; they are often not deleted, especially if a transaction has already been made to the account or if the balance is not zero.

    Assets, liabilities, equity, revenue, and costs are only a few examples of the categories into which accounts are often divided.
    Accounts are categorized by account type and may be identified by an identifier (account number) and a caption or header. The accounts can have a quantity measure definition in computerized accounting systems with computable quantity accounting.
    The accounts are normally set up in the order that they appear in financial statements: profit and loss accounts come before balance sheet accounts.

    Difference between book keeping and accounting.

    Although they may do the same tasks, bookkeepers and accountants have distinct skill sets. In general, a bookkeeper’s job is to keep your finances organized and record transactions, whereas accountants offer counseling analysis, and are more suited to offer tax advice.

    Consider employing a bookkeeper or accountant. To decide which of these two jobs your company requires, consider the information provided below.

    While accounting is a subjective assessment of what the data implies for your company, bookkeeping is a direct record of all purchases and transactions your firm does. 

    A bookkeeper can be seen as an accountant, but without the appropriate accreditation, a bookkeeper cannot be an accountant. 

    Accounting and bookkeeping are two tasks that are crucial for every corporate organization. Simply said, bookkeeping is in charge of documenting financial transactions, whereas accounting is in charge of deciphering, categorizing, analyzing, summarizing, and reporting financial data.

    Summary About Book keeping

    By keeping up-to-date records on accounts payable and receivable, payroll, and daily financial entries and reconciliations, bookkeepers supervise a company’s financial data and compliance. They carry out daily accounting responsibilities such as recording payments and adjustments, general ledger entries, and monthly financial reporting. 

    The fundamental HR responsibilities of new hire paperwork, compliance, temporary disability insurance filings, and workers’ compensation files are frequently assisted by bookkeepers, making them crucial to the financial stability of a firm.

    Depending on their workplace, bookkeepers may collaborate with a variety of workers. Bookkeepers frequently collaborate with accountants, office managers, and auditing clerks.

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    Book keeping